Wednesday, April 20, 2005

Business Logic APIs

Database application development generally has two major components:

1) The user interface
2) The database

These have to talk to each other somehow, typically by an "Application Programmatic Interface" or API. What should such an API look like logically?

Let's take as an example a screen that allows the user to transfer funds from one account to another. It looks something like this:

Source Account: ..........
Target Account: ..........
Amount: ..........

[OK] [Cancel]

The database has the following tables:

, account_name VARCHAR2(30)
, current_balance NUMBER CHECK (current_balance >= 0)

CREATE TABLE transactions
( transaction_id INTEGER PRIMARY KEY
, transaction_date DATE NOT NULL
, source_account_id INTEGER NOT NULL REFERENCES accounts
, target_account_id INTEGER NOT NULL REFERENCES accounts
, amount NUMBER CHECK (amount >= 0)

What needs to be done:

Once user has entered the 2 account numbers and the amount then we must:

  1. Update the source account and decrease its balance by the amount (subject to the check constraint that says the balance cannot become negative)

  2. Update the target account and increase its balance by the amount

  3. Create a transactions record for the transfer

How should we build the code?

The wrong approach

This is the approach that I so often see used:

1) Create a "table API" for table ACCOUNTS with a procedure:
PROCEDURE update_account_balance
( p_account_id IN INTEGER
, p_amount IN NUMBER

2) Create a “table API” for table TRANSACTIONS with a procedure:
PROCEDURE create_transaction
( p_source_account_id IN INTEGER
, p_target_account_id IN INTEGER
, p_amount IN NUMBER

3) In the application, invoke the following code when OK is pressed:
  • accounts_api.update_account_balance (:source_account_id, :amount * -1);
  • accounts_api.update_account_balance (:target_account_id, :amount);
  • transactions_api.create_transaction (:source_account_id, :target_account_id, :amount);
It works, but it is poor design. The client application is made responsible for carrying out the transaction properly: for example, if there are insufficient funds in the source account then the transfer must be aborted.

What is wrong with that?

  • Suppose there are other variants of the transfer process, implemented in different client screens. The business logic must be duplicated between the various screens. This leads to increased maintenance, increased testing, increased chance of something going wrong.

  • Suppose this application is a Windows client/server app, but now we want to add an alternative web-based interface. Yet again, we will be duplicating the business logic, with the attendant costs and risks.

The right approach

What is required is a Business Logic API, in which each complete transaction is represented by a single procedure like this:
PROCEDURE transfer_funds
( p_source_account_id IN INTEGER
, p_target_account_id IN INTEGER
, p_amount IN NUMBER

The body of that procedure performs all 3 steps of the process, and handles any errors. It either succeeds in all 3 steps, or leaves the database unchanged.

In the application, the code behind the OK button is:

accounts_api.Transfer_funds (:source_account_id, :target_account_id, :amount);

It is not possible for the application to corrupt the database, because it doesn’t contain any business logic – it is just an interface to the business logic that is in the API.

This has many advantages:
  • The business logic resides in exactly one place, the API – so only needs to be maintained once, tested once

  • The application is simpler – less maintenance, less testing

  • The application is lower risk

  • Adding an alternative interface is easier and low-risk, because we will only be creating a user interface, not new (duplicated) business logic


Have I built a straw man here? Isn’t the above obvious? You would think so, but as I already said I actually see code developed the wrong way all the time. I’m not making it up! In my experience it is usually because the developer (who may be fairly inexperienced in software design principles) is left to his or her own devices to build the application and the API at the same time, without any direction from a senior designer. Since he is building all the code, and only building one client module, what does he care whether the logic is in the client application or in the API?

It is only later, when changes are made to the rules, or a new interface is wanted, that the whole sorry mess becomes apparent.